A willingness to be bullied may be inherited

first_img Explore further Amanda J. Lea of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California in Los Angeles, and her colleagues wanted to test the hypothesis that traits concerned with relationships that are initiated or directed by an individual may be more heritable than other traits. To find out, they studied a population of yellow-bellied marmots during the period 2003 to 2008.The marmots live in large networks among the burrows of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and the scientists observing them were able to map out these networks and and determine the relationships, the number of ties each individual had, and the interactions between the various individuals. Some of the interections, such as mutual grooming, were friendly, but marmots can also be antagonistic towards each other, chasing other individuals or nipping them. By collating data on their interactions and data on family relationships, the researchers were able to determine which traits were likely to have been inherited.The researchers were surpprised to find that there was no evidence of heritability of traits concerned with initiating social interactions themselves, but there was a small genetic influence in traits concerned with being on the receiving end of interactions, particularly antagonistic ones. The tendency to be victimized was especially inheritable.Another of the paper’s authors, Daniel Blumstein, said marmots thrive if they are “in the middle of things socially,” but being in the thick of it also means they are likely to encounter more conflicts with others, and they may be on the losing end. Blumstein said being willing to tolerate abuse instead of avoiding interactions that may turn sour could be a trait that is favored by evolutionary forces, since the benefits of living in a group are greater than the drawback of at times being the victim of bullying.Blumstein said marmots that were well-connected tended to live longer and reproduce more than those that interacted less with others. This was true even if the interactions of well-connected marmots tended to lead to aggression towards them. He said interacting with others was beneficial “even if the interactions are nasty.” This may be because being in a group provides protection against predation, and being bullied is a better option than becoming prey.Lea said the study, which was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on November 29, suggests scientists need to re-think their traditional view of friendly interactions as being good and unfriendly ones as bad. (PhysOrg.com) — A new study of the behavior of marmots suggests that a willingness to accept some extent of bullying, rather than shying away from interactions that could lead to conflict, may be inherited. Citation: A willingness to be bullied may be inherited (2010, December 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-12-willingness-bullied-inherited.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Himalayan Marmot – (Marmota himalayana) – photographed at Tshophu Lake altitude 4100 metres near Jangothang, Bhutan. Image: Christopher Fynn, via Wikipedia. More information: Heritable victimization and the benefits of agonistic relationships, PNAS November 29, 2010. Published online before print, doi:10.1073/pnas.1009882107 Climate change causes larger, more plentiful marmots, study shows This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Two teams pave way for advances in 2D materials

first_img © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Two teams pave way for advances in 2D materials (2014, July 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-07-teams-pave-advances-2d-materials.html Credit: Nature Chemistry More information: Nature Chemistry (2014) DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2008 Nature Chemistry (2014) DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2007 Ordered planar polymers created for the first time Journal information: Nature Chemistrycenter_img The headlines are responding to two studies, from two different teams, that found ways to form large two-dimensional polymer single crystals and determined their structures. The two teams, in the two separate papers, announced the world’s first verified 2-D polymers. Chemistry World of the Royal Society of Chemistry, describing the work, said, “Both research teams used single crystal x-ray diffraction to unambiguously confirm the two-dimensional polymeric structure of the crystals, something that has not been achieved to date with other attempts to create such two-dimensional crystal polymers, marking a milestone in the field.” Similarly, Chemical & Engineering News said what they did was a “landmark development” in research on synthetic 2-D polymer crystals. Their findings open the way to the creation of organic two-dimensional membrane polymers with more complex chemistry than graphene, added Chemistry World. Two-dimensional polymers have potential for use in nanoporous membranes and other applications. They could be put to use in areas ranging from optics and electronics to “exquisitely selective molecular sieves,” said Chemistry World.One of the two papers is from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Nevada. Patrick Kissel, Daniel J. Murray, William J. Wulftange, Vincent J. Catalano and Benjamin T. King are the authors. The latter, King, designed the monomer and advised on the project. Their study is “A nanoporous two-dimensional polymer by single-crystal-to-single-crystal photopolymerization,” which was published online in Nature Chemistry, on July 27. The authors wrote, “Here, we report the preparation of a fluorinated hydrocarbon two-dimensional polymer that can be exfoliated into single sheets, and its characterization by high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.”The other paper is “Gram-scale synthesis of two-dimensional polymer crystals and their structure analysis by X-ray diffraction,” from a team from the Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry at ETH Zürich. They are Max J. Kory, Payam Payamyar, Stan W. van de Poll & A. Dieter Schlüter. The latter designed the monomer and coordinated the research. This was also published online on July 27. “Here we show that non-centrosymmetric, enantiomorphic single crystals of a simple-to-make monomer can be photochemically converted into chiral 2DP crystals and cleanly reversed back to the monomer. X-ray diffraction established unequivocal structural proof for this synthetic 2DP which has an all-carbon scaffold and can be synthesized on the gram scale .” This month’s headlines on two-dimensional polymers showed noteworthy headway. “2-D Polymer Crystals Confirmed At Last,” said Chemical & Engineering News. “Engineers Make the World’s First Verified, 2-Dimensional Polymers,” said Popular Science. “Propeller-shaped molecules give 2D polymers lift-off,” said Chemistry World. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New record for oldest water found in Canada

first_img Long-standing recycling of ancient sulfur in billion-year-old rocks supplies energy to terrestrial subsurface biosphere Explore further Credit: University of Toronto (Phys.org)—A team of researchers working deep in a mine in Canada has found water samples that date back approximately 2 billion years, breaking the record of oldest discovered water on the surface of the Earth by approximately 500 million years. The group presented their findings at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting last week in San Francisco. Scientists have known for some time that water exists far below the ground—water that has been isolated from what is normally known as the water table—unseen and untouched for billions of years. To learn more about such water, scientists have been working with mining companies. As miners go deeper, the researchers gain access to ever deeper sources of water. Prior to the discovery of this most recent record breaker, the same team working in the same mine back in 2013—the Kidd Mine in Ontario—found a water sample at approximately 2.4 km that was subsequently dated to approximately 1.5 billion years ago. The new record holder was found at approximately 3 km down—the researchers determined the age of the water samples by studying dissolved gasses.The researchers also reported that the samples they obtained came from what they describe as a large source that was flowing out of the ground at a rate of several liters per minute—a volume, they note, that is much larger than has been predicted. They also discovered that sulfate in the water had come from interactions between the water and the rocks around it, rather than from another source. This, they note, suggests that the water was capable of sustaining life. To date, no subsurface cutoff water source has ever been found that holds life, but this finding by the team suggests that it is possible. If such microbial life does exist somewhere deep below the surface, it would represent a form of life that has evolved separately from all other life on Earth. It would also suggest that space scientists might have to consider the possibility of similar forms of life living far beneath the surface of Mars or other planets. More information: B24B-05: New Frontiers for Deep Fluids and Geobiology Research in the World’s Oldest Rocks, agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetin … app.cgi/Paper/162783AbstractDiscovery of new environmental systems that facilitate investigation of biodiversity, microbial metabolism, life’s adaptation to extreme conditions, and limits to life, have expanded our conception of Earth’s habitability and informed search strategies for life elsewhere in the solar system. While chemolithotrophic microbial ecosystems in the marine biosphere have been investigated for decades, the geobiology of terrestrial systems is undergoing a recent expansion, in particular to include the > 70% of the continental lithosphere comprised of Precambrian rocks – the oldest rocks on Earth.Underground research laboratories and mines worldwide provide access to the deep subsurface in Precambrian settings, and targets for investigation of extant microbial ecosystems. Kidd Creek Mine located in Tmmins Ontario on the Canadian Shield is an iconic site. Investigation of fracture fluids here to 3 km revealed H2 production via radiolysis and serpentinization; production of methane and higher hydrocarbons via abiotic organic synthesis; and fracture fluids with mean residence times on the order of a billion years [3]. Recently, investigation of the sulfur cycle in these fluids has revealed a mass independent sulfur isotope signature in the dissolved sulfate, whereby oxidants from radiolysis oxidize Archean sulfide minerals, providing a mechanism to supply both electron donors (H2) and electron acceptors (sulfate) that could fuel a deep microbial biosphere [4]. Recent MPNs results demonstrate the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in these waters in the present day. Beginning in 2016 the deep levels at this site are providing access to international teams of researchers to collaborate with the University of Toronto in a multi-year program to characterize the deep CHONS cycles, as terrestrial geobiology continues to expand our understanding of the habitability of the Earth. Citation: New record for oldest water found in Canada (2016, December 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-12-oldest-canada.html © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Caring about tomorrow

first_imgAbout 70 percent of Americans believe that the climate is changing, most acknowledge that this change reflects human activity, and more than two-thirds think it will harm future generations. Unless we dramatically alter our way of life, swaths of the planet will become hostile or uninhabitable later this century — spinning out ecological, epidemiological and social disasters like eddies from a current. And yet most Americans would support energy-conserving policies only if they cost households less than $200 per year — woefully short of the investment required to keep warming under catastrophic rates. This inaction is breathtakingly immoral. Touching the past can connect us to the future, especially when we look back fondly. In one set of studies, psychologists induced people to think about the sacrifices past generations had made for them. These individuals became more willing to sacrifice short-term gains to help future generations, paying forward their forbears’ kindness. Organizations like Longpath are applying these insights to foster sustainable thinking. They reason that gratitude toward the past might empower us to help those who come after — a kind of golden rule across time. …center_img Read the whole story: The Washington Postlast_img read more

Anthem for the young

first_imgWinter has already rung the bell of your doors, and December is completely full of music dance and drama. On the occasion of this festive season Sahitya Kala Parishad and Department of Art, Culture and Language brought  Youth Festival for the young generation of at Central Park, Rajiv Chowk, in the Capital, from December 16 to 21. The Festival was inaugurated by Gitanjali Gupta Kundra (IAS), secretary, Department of Art, Culture and Language, Government of India. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’A six day extravaganza of music and dance highlighted by Daily Laser and Beam Show, Fusion band performance by Rock Veda and Vibrant Exhibition of Sculpture and Installation art by Young Artists from Delhi. Youth Festival was closed by the headliner Band Kabul and Rock Veda who enthralled the crowd with their magical compositions and Kabul, with his melodious voice, exuberant energy, rocked the finale. Rock Veda presented the fusion of different genres of Sufi, Rock and Hindustani Classical, sticking to the Indian traditions and adding the hint of modern music was the zest of the finale. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“I would like to thank, Sahitya Kala Parishad and Delhi Govt to provide us with this lovely opportunity to perform for such an amazing audience. We are trying to bring the new generation closer to our very own rich Hindustani Classical Music through our compositions, with our special Rock Veda twist. It is indeed an honour, a great pleasure to be a part of this Festival,” said Kabul.A  Progressive Fusion Band, Kabul and  Rock Veda truly believes in the power of music. The Band coalesces the natural emotion of Indian Classical with a creative contemporary mix, belting out scintillating and heart hitting original compilations for music aficionados.last_img read more

Curtain call

first_imgAwards across 13 categories celebrating various aspects of theatre including Stage Design, Lighting and Costumes apart from Best Play, Best Director, theatre groups from all over the nation are set to participate in a festival to receive the prestigious and most comprehensive awards recognizing Indian Theatre. Mahindra Excellence in Theatre Awards (META) called for entries for this year’s edition of META, a weeklong theatre festival and award that stages the best of theatre of the year. Every year META Winners are also awarded handsome prize money across the various categories. The 10th META Festival is scheduled from March 21 to 26 at the Capital’s LTG and Kamani Auditoriums along with a Gala Awards Night on March 27 at Taj Mahal Hotel, Mansingh Road, New Delhi. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Jay Shah, Head, Cultural Outreach, Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd said “We want to provide a platform in the form of META for encouraging all forms of theatre across its full spectrum in India. Through META, our aim is to increase awareness and appreciation of Indian theatre, making it one of the most important national platforms for recognizing and rewarding theatre. Apart from the glamorous and obvious awards for direction and acting we also celebrate and promote other elements of theatre Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflixlike playwriting, set designing, costume and light designing.”In continuation of its commitment to promoting the arts, META 2015 aims at bringing together the best of Indian theatre from the year gone by. The awards consist of a specially designed trophy and a cheque for Rs.1 Lakh for the Best Production, Rs.75,000 for Best Original Playwright and Rs.45,000 for all other award categories.Creative Director, META, Ravi Dubey says, “It’s fascinating how we started with 10 entries in our first year and now after a decade META has achieved a stature of being one of the most glamorous events of the fraternity with over 13 awards from the various corners of the country. META has been a wonderful journey for us as we engage with various groups as well as dynamic and colorful artists on and off the stage.” Ravi Dubey also shared that META has really contributed to theatre as envisaged and suggested to other corporate entities that they should also be supporting theatre since it still requires more support and motivation.A Coffee table book Curtain Call: Celebrating Indian Theatre encapsulating ten glorious years of META was released at the  Jaipur Literature Festival by  Shabana Azmi, Girish Karnad and Ravi Dubey, Creative Director, META along with Jaipur Literature Festival Producer and Teamwork Arts MD, Sanjoy Roy.Celebrated theatre personalities like M K Raina, Sushma Seth, Rajat Kapoor, Amal Allana, Manan Kaur, Neelam Mansingh, Ananda Lal have contributed to the book. Curtain Call: Celebrating Indian Theatre features their testimonials and chronicles on META and its instrumental role in encouraging and rewarding the theatre industry, bringing increased participation and showcasing exemplary work within this field.last_img read more

Outlay for 201516 pegged at Rs 377K crore

first_imgPresenting the vote-on-account, Sisodia said the Delhi government will come out with a full budget after holding consultations with the people to identify priorities for various sectors.The highlight of the account comprises the Delhi government’s demand that in order to ensure smooth development of the city, DDA should provide land free-of-cost land for development of infrastructure. “Also, at present the government of NCT of Delhi has no direct role in the city planning made by DDA. It is thereby suggested that a metropolitan planning body be set up for comprehensive planning of the city,” said Sisodia in his address.He said the government has planned to allocate Rs 21,500 crore for non-plan expenditure while the plan outlay will be around Rs 16,250 crore. The proposed non-plan expenditure is around Rs 3,000 crore more than last year’s allocation while plan outlay would be Rs 100 crore less than that of last year. The AAP government has focused on transport, education and health services. “Government is bringing vote on account because this new government wants people’s suggestions to prepare its budget. Till now, it was done in a closed room but we will not follow this. Instead, we will go to the people and seek their suggestions to prepare this government’s budget,” Sisoida said.He also put a proposal to amend Value Added Tax (VAT) act which was passed by the majority in the House. The amendment will allow traders to carry forward their credit for the successive financial years.While presenting the account, Sisodia also added that in 2014-15, government suffered a deficit of Rs 4,500 crore since AAP ministry quit in February last year. He also expressed unhappiness over Rs 325 crore central assistance to Delhi, saying that it has been stagnant for the past so many years. “14th Finance Commission had recommended the increase in Centre’s fund allocation to Delhi. We only demand that Centre should give us 0.65 per cent of total service tax which it gets from Delhi. With this, Delhi will get Rs 4,000 crore,” the Deputy CM said.last_img read more

CID arrests four over truck theft case

first_imgKolkata: The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) arrested four persons in connection with the incidents of theft of trucks.Acting on a tip off the CID officials raided the house of one Md Hanif of Dhupguri Mill Para and recovered 8 trucks from there.During the raid, three persons, namely Sanawar Mohamad and Mansaf Mohamad from Gaziabad and Dulal Sarkar of Dhupguri were arrested. The vehicles were in Dhupguri truck terminus.According to the CID officials, the chassis number and registration number of the trucks were manipulated in several cases. A specific case was started at Dhupguri police station in this regard.last_img read more

Aussies pick Josh over Siddle for Test opener

first_imgJosh Hazlewood was preferred to Peter Siddle as Australia’s third pace bowler on Wednesday for the opening Test against New Zealand on the bouncy Gabba wicket.Skipper Steve Smith said Hazlewood was picked to complement Australia’s two left-arm pacemen Mitchell Johnson and Mitchell Starc in the bowling attack for Thursday’s first Test.Siddle misses out despite taking six wickets in his last Test appearance against England in August, after Hazlewood was dropped for the final Test of the failed Ashes campaign. “Peter will be the 12th man. It’s obviously disappointing for him, he bowled extremely well in the last Test match at The Oval against England. That’s the team we’ve gone with,” Smith told a Test-eve media conference. Also Read – A league of his own!“Josh did a terrific job out here (Gabba) last year and I think he’ll complement both the left-armers really well. “There is going to be extra pace and bounce on this wicket like we normally get.“We saw last year here against India the way he could hit high on the bat and bring the ‘keeper and the slips into play. I think the Gabba and the WACA (second Perth Test) will certainly suit him.“He’s come a long way, he’s learnt a lot out of England series and he bowled really well in the (Sheffield) Shield game last week, so he’s really in a good place and hopefully he can have similar results to what he had last year.” Also Read – Domingo named new Bangladesh cricket coachHazlewood took five for 68 in India’s first innings on his Test debut at the Gabba last December. Smith also said that all-rounder Mitch Marsh would bat at six with wicketkeeper Peter Nevill at seven.The Black Caps preferred Doug Bracewell to Matt Henry in their eleven. “It’s a bit of a coin-toss with them but we’re comfortable either way… and we felt that Doug was bowling a touch better at this time,” Kiwi captain Brendon McCullum said.last_img read more

Kolkata Police STF nabs Manipur militant from city

first_imgKolkata: The Special Task Force (STF) of Kolkata Police has nabbed a militant of Manipur from Kolkata. Investigators seized two 7 mm and one 9 mm pistols along with three round of ammunition from his possession.According to the sources, Amon Nelson Singh alias Chingkhei Khuman, alias Maheikhomba Meitei, a resident of Imphal East district is the self-proclaimed chairperson of a militant organisation called Kangleipak Communist Party (Military Council Progressive) in Manipur. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThis organisation is banned in India. It is suspected that this militant organisation might have connections with insurgent organisations like United National Liberation Front (UNLF) and United Liberation Front Of Assam (ULFA).Kangleipak Communist Party is the group that has been triggering restlessness in the North-East since 1980’s. Last year, members of the group had orchestrated a blast in Manipur, killing two BSF jawans and injuring many more. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedPreviously, another member of the same insurgent group was arrested in connection with a robbery at a jewellery shop in Jodhpur Park.Mainly, this organisation is collecting money by means of extortion, robbery and many such ways.According to the investigators, this group may have been facing financial difficulties and that is why they are eager to collect money in illegal ways, as soon as possible, for their next course of action.A few days back, the STF got a tip off about Singh and his presence in Kolkata. Immediately after getting the information, sources were deputed throughout the city.On Saturday, the STF officials succeeded in locating Singh’s hideout and arrested him. Later, he was produced before the Bankshal Court on Sunday. The accused has been remanded to STF custody till September 20.While Singh got arrested from Kolkata, another member of Kangleipak Communist Party — Moirangthem Tomei Singh alias Rana Pratap, was arrested by the special cell of Delhi Police on Saturday. He was accused of threatening some renowned businessmen in Delhi. He is also wanted by the National Investigating Agency (NIA) for his involvement with a Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) violation case.The NIA had announced a reward for the person who would help the investigators to nab him.last_img read more